Self-regulation refers to a person’s ability to adapt their behaviour, attention, emotions and thoughts in response to what is going on around them. Self-regulation is an important protective factor for children exposed to risk and is a strong predictor of school success Claro & Loeb, 2019; Duckworth & Carlson, 2013; McClelland et al., 2015
self-regulation is also linked to greater prosocial behaviour Moilanen, 2007
. The MDI measures both short-term and long-term self-regulation. Short-term self-regulation specifically involves responding to situations “in the heat of the moment,” such as controlling an impulsive reaction, trying not to fidget in class, or focusing one’s attention on an immediate project or activity. Long-term self-regulation requires activation of the brain’s prefrontal cortex, which is still developing throughout adolescence and into early adulthood Moilanen et al., 2018 ;Casey et al., 2019
. This type of self-regulation involves planning and adapting one’s behaviour in the present to achieve a goal several days, weeks, or even months in the future.